Campus in bloom

IIDEA Curriculum & Research

IIDEA-Focused Curriculum - MSW Program

IIDEA is infused throughout the entire curriculum in each of the School of Social Work's programs. Below are some examples of MSW courses and certificate programs where such content is the focus of the curriculum.

  • This course provides an overview of older adults as a population group and of aging as a biopsychosocial process. The course explores aspects of social services and health care systems intended to help individuals, families, and communities confront aging-related challenges and capitalize upon aging-related strengths.

  • This course examines chronic illnesses and disability among adults, focusing on the medical and psychosocial aspects of various mental and physical health conditions. This course aims to foster understanding of how social workers work with clients with chronic illness and disability, as well as their significant others, within healthcare and community systems. This course also reviews relevant policies and welfare system components intended to support those with chronic illness and disability.

  • As part of Generalist Curriculum courses for Rutgers School of Social Work's Bachelor of Arts in Social Work (BASW) and Master of Social Work (MSW) programs, all students must complete the course Diversity and Oppression. 

    Diversity and Oppression introduces a range of diverse populations by race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and physical differences. Additionally, it examines the role, function, and effects of oppression in society as it relates to social and economic justice. Assumptions underlying theory and research methodologies from which basic constructs of human behavior are drawn will be examined to understand how power and other dynamics manage and sustain oppression at the individual and institutional levels. Also of interest is how oppression affects service delivery at micro and macro levels, particularly social policies and strategic planning which drive the shape of services.

    For more insight in to the Diversity and Oppression course, listen to the Therapy Show Podcast: Epsiode #42, Dr. DuWayne Battle on Diversity & Social Justice in Social Work hosted by Dr. Bridget Nash. 

  • This course will highlight theories to enhance the students’ understanding of “Person-in-Environment” to be inclusive of the physical environment. Students will develop a paradigm regarding the interconnection of social work and environmental justice with an understanding of the bi-directional relationship of people and nature.  Students will examine social work history and create an emerging perspective of social workers’ role with respect to the environment.  This course will help students achieve the updated Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) competency “Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice” by developing awareness of ecological crises, environmental injustices, and movements that are intended to serve marginalized populations.  Students will discuss how social workers can increase equality through advocacy, education, and action.     

  • Examines intersections among gender, race, class, and sexuality; the institutional factors and values of society that impact on personal roles, status, and discrimination of women; and the social and individual problems that affect women because of their gender. Feminist theories and feminist practices that facilitate institutional and individual changes are discussed.

  • Explores the impact of HIV infection and AIDS on the individual, family, society, and institutions that provide care. Examines the political, social, legal, ethical, spiritual, and public health issues and the perspectives of people living with HIV infection and AIDS that are needed to inform practice and policy.

  • This course provides foundation knowledge and general practice skills for working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. Students will gain knowledge of LGBTQ historical and political perspectives, the development of LGBTQ identity-formation, health, mental health and familial issues, and LGBTQ issues across the life span including the coming-out process. Intersectionality of race, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity will be addressed along with ethical and legal issues which impact LGBTQ individuals and their families. Students will learn how to practice with LGBTQ clients in cultural relevant ways, and resources for support and information will be identified.

  • Approximately 20% of both New Jersey and New York's individual state populations are Hispanic and as this community continues to grow there is a lack of culturally competent social practitioners to work effectively with these populations. The MSW Certificate Program for Latina/o/x Initiatives for Service, Training, and Assessment  (LISTA) with funding from the New York Community Trust, was developed to fill this gap. 

    LISTA aims to increase the number of social workers who are culturally competent to provide services to Hispanic populations through:

    • Education on evidence-based culturally sensitive practices
    • Internships in Hispanic serving agencies
    • Experiential learning through study abroad in Hispanic countries
  • Confronting issues of poverty and inequality is a core value of the social work profession. This course will provide students with a theoretical, empirical, and analytical understanding of poverty and inequality in the United States. Throughout the course comparisons will be made with other developed nations.

  • This course examines the phenomenon of global human migration and human vulnerability and the impact on the local reality. Students will develop knowledge and skills that encompass the diversity of immigration experiences, international refugee situations, and acculturation and family dynamics processes; transnational families; and inter- and intra-ethnic tensions. Students will learn and apply concepts relevant to social work that define specific needs and issues facing immigrant and refugee clients at the practice and policy levels. Students will explore personal biases and experiences, organizational barriers, and culturally relevant practices in services to immigrants and refugees. Students will analyze social policies, programs and practices for safeguarding rights and determine culturally responsive services to immigrants and refugees.

IIDEA-Focused Curriculum - BA in Social Work Program

IIDEA is infused throughout the entire curriculum in each of the School of Social Work's programs. Below are some examples of BA in social work courses and certificate programs where such content is the focus of the curriculum.

  • Overview of social work values, ethics, arenas of practice, and problem areas. Includes forty hour (40) experiential learning/ volunteer placement/ civic engagement within a social service agency.

  • “Black lives matter. Black thought matters. Black writing matters. Black writing about Black lives matters. Black thought matters. Black scholarship, criticism, and research matter. Black memory matters…” Louis-Chude Sokei, 2020 in “What Was Black Studies?”

    Blackness is not a monolith. Racism does not require the actions nor the intent of individuals. In understanding Anti-Black Racism, we must also understand the nuance within “Black” as a culture, race, and lived experience. In this course, reading, critical thinking, and skills building to confront Anti-Black racism are our main concern. This class will delve into the varied experiences, thoughts, and scholarship of Black and African writers.

    The readings should make you question your beliefs, positionality, actions, and as social justice advocates, inactions. Using Black writers from various disciplines, including social work, we will explore ways to actively and daily disrupt Anti-Black racism. Guided by the authors, and those who came before us, as a class we will choose a social action to take that will aid in the movement to eliminate Anti-Black racism.

    This class will create opportunities for metacognition (thinking about your thinking), introspection, and reflection. These opportunities will be elicited and integrated throughout the semester as you engage in vulnerability and critically reflect in writings and discussion posts with your classmates. Let us get used to the sound of your voice, words, and thought—because it matters and is part of the journey to understanding Anti-Black racism. We will approach reading as a personal transaction between you and the text. What did the book(s) make you think of, feel, remember, wonder about? Are you uncomfortable yet? Good, that means we’re doing this right.

  • This course provides an overview of the contemporary challenge of interpersonal violence through the lens of social justice, which is a foundation of the field of social work. It describes the causes and consequences of child maltreatment, peer violence, intimate partner violence and sexual assault. Students will discuss research/science informed prevention and response solutions in schools, health care, and community settings from a multidisciplinary perspective.

  • This course focuses on understanding, and analyzing childhood (birth through 18) in the United States context, examine the multiple social systems that children/youth come into contact with and consider how these systems perpetuate inequitable outcomes. These include: the school system, child welfare and juvenile justice system, the health system and the immigration system. The course will use developmental theories and a social justice/equity lens to examine childhood and explore how race, gender and social class may influence inequality within these systems. Theory application in regards to social justice will also be explored. Particular consideration will be given to theories of change, culturally responsive practice, and privilege.

  • This course provides an overview of housing inequality in the United States and homelessness as a product of this type of inequity. It uses theory, first-person accounts from people experiencing housing insecurity, and a social justice/equity lens to examine whether homelessness is an intractable social issue or a solvable policy problem. Students will reflect on their own perceptions of homelessness, explore the causes and consequences of housing inequity, and learn about programmatic and advocacy efforts to address this issue in the United States.

  • An analysis of the relationship between institutionalized practices and the risk factors associated with particular groups within our society will be explored. Contemporary groups, currently at risk for negative outcomes, will be discussed. For example: the aged, veterans, the handicapped, refugees, women, ethnic and racial minorities, and those participating in alternative lifestyles. Structural and environmental obstacles impeding the functioning of these groups will be explored.

  • This diversity and oppression course will introduce a range of diverse populations by race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and physical differences. Additionally, students will examine the role, function, and effects of oppression in society as it relates to social, economic, and environmental justice. Assumptions underlying theory and research methodologies from which basic constructs of human behavior are drawn will be examined to understand how power and other dynamics manage and sustain oppression at the individual and institutional levels. Also of interest here is how oppression affects service delivery at micro and macro levels, particularly social policies and strategic planning which drive the shape of services. 

  • This seminar is an online course that will focus on child maltreatment, the development and evolution of child protective services in the United States, and emerging practices in the treatment and prevention of child neglect and abuse.  Attachment, separation, and the effects of maltreatment on the developing child will be examined.  Different models of child maltreatment will be presented and the development of skills in recognition, assessment, use of authority, and provision of continuing services will be emphasized.  Identifying risk factors, such as, substance abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence will be addressed.  Attention will be given to substitute care and inter-professional issues. This course is required for the concentration in child welfare and is also offered as a social work elective and is required of students seeking a minor in Social Work & Social Justice.

  • “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens could change the world.  Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.”  -Margaret Mead

    This course explores global social work, past and present, and the application of social work to vulnerable groups around the globe. Students will learn about different applications of social work and social services delivery systems around the globe. Students will apply social work values, knowledge and skills to address global problems. Student will explore the peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, and databases on international development applied to a selected country and specialized field of practice of the student’s choice. Students will explore their international career goals through the focused exploration of a specific development issue within a country or region of the globe.

Faculty Research & Dissemination Efforts

View a selection of the research and dissemination efforts related to IIDEA that our faculty members have recently accomplished.

  • Edward Alessi is an associate professor at Rutgers School of Social Work and Chancellor’s Scholar of LGBTQ Mental Health, Trauma, and Resilience. Dr. Alessi's research and scholarly interests include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) mental health issues and clinical social work practice, and his research aims to improve (a) understanding of stress and trauma among sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations, and (b) enhance clinical practice with SGM and other marginalized populations. Dr. Alessi gives a glimpse into some of the research relating to Inclusion, Intersectionality, Diversity, Equity and Advancement (IIDEA) that he's recently conducted. 

    Tell us about an article or dissemination effort that relates to IIDEA that you’ve worked on recently.
    I have a series of articles published on LGBTQ+ migrants in South Africa. These articles highlighted the lived experiences of queer migrants there, including the intersectional stigmas that they experienced, and their negative impact on integration, health, and wellbeing. 

    Alessi, E. J., Kahn, S., Giwa, S., & Cheung, S. (2020). “Those tablets, they are finding an empty stomach:” A qualitative investigation of HIV risk among sexual and gender minority migrants in Cape Town, South Africa. Ethnicity & Health. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1080/13557858.2020.1817342 

    Alessi, E. J., Greenfield, B., Yu, M., Cheung, S., Giwa, S., & Kahn, S. (2021). Family, friendship, and strength among LGBTQ+ migrants in Cape Town, South Africa: A qualitative understanding. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 38, 1941-1960.  

    Alessi, E. J., Kahn, S., & Pilirani Chikalogwe, V. (2021). Identifying and addressing the impacts of COVID-19 on LGBTQ+ migrants in South Africa: A preliminary look. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 

    Why did you conduct this study?
    These studies provided the opportunity to engage in capacity building with a community organization in South Africa that serves LGBTQ+ migrants. In addition, the studies provided the preliminary data needed to develop and test an HIV-prevention group prevention intervention for LGBTQ+ there. The preliminary data were used to apply for a Rutgers Global Health Seed Grant that enables us to create the intervention protocol. The next step is to test it in South Africa--hopefully in the Spring 2022.

    Although LGBTQ+ migrants experience challenges like other migrant and LGBTQ+ populations, their multiple marginalized identities make them an especially vulnerable subgroup of both the migrant and LGBTQ+ populations. Studies demonstrate that LGBTQ+ migrants are at high risk for HIV in host countries, and there is a critical need for this type of intervention in South Africa--HIV prevalence is among the highest in the world (UNAIDS 2019; Avert 2020). Further, in 2019, there were 4 million international migrants in South Africa, the most of any African country (International Office Migration [IOM] 2020); reports indicate that many international migrants in South Africa are likely to be LGBTQ+ (ORAM 2013). This is, in large part, due to South Africa’s constitutional guarantees of nondiscrimination based on gender and sexual orientation (ORAM 2013), which attract LGBTQ+ people from at least 30 African countries, many of which criminalize same-sex sexual behavior and expose LGBTQ+ individuals to human rights violations (Mendos 2019).

    However, upon arrival in South Africa, SGM migrants experience a constellation of structural and psychosocial challenges that coalesce to heighten vulnerability to HIV risk.

    How does it connect with the principles of IIDEA?
    We are accounting for a population who faces intersectional stigmas that cause numerous health inequities. At the same time, they do not receive the attention they need to reduce these inequities. Being marginalized because of one's sexual or gender identity, race, immigration status, and social class requires that structural conditions increases health disparities and reduces opportunities for resilience. 

    What is the value of this work? Why is it important?
    This intervention situates the challenges of LGBTQ+ migrants as existing externally rather than because of individual deficits or psychological problems. More specifically, using knowledge building exercises and arts-based methods, the intervention intends to re-situate racism, homophobia, transphobia, xenophobia, and classism as structural issues that, if addressed, would allow LGBTQ+ migrants to make decisions that not only empower them but also facilitate their resilience. 

  • Dr. Natalie Moore-Bembry is an assistant professor of teaching and director of student affairs at Rutgers School of Social Work. Her scholarly and dissemination work is focused on cultural humility, micro-aggressions, racial trauma, eliminating racial discrimination, and related DEI issues. She is a very active presenter in local, state and national venues, and has been asked to provide training and technical assistance to many organizations, including RUSSW and other Rutgers schools and divisions. Dr. Moore-Bembry gives a glimpse into some of the work relating to Inclusion, Intersectionality, Diversity, Equity and Advancement (IIDEA) that she's recently conducted. 

    Tell us about one specific article or dissemination effort that relates to DEI that you’ve worked on recently.
    I have had the opportunity to work on a few anti-racism and DEI articles over the last year. The one that still resonates with me was an article I wrote for NASW-NJ Focus Magazine entitled To Thine Own Self be True: A Social Work Educator's Response to Racial Trauma. This article shared my experience and beliefs in the academy and how my beliefs are impacted by the circumstances and situations. My article presents a small glimpse into understanding the need for the Beloved Community at Rutgers University. 

    Why did you do this study/dissemination effort?
    I have engaged in this type of dissemination and research for a number of years but this article was written from a place of hurt and healing. This article allowed me to be vulnerable and authentic but to also address issues I know that others have experienced and may continue to struggle with but have not felt comfortable sharing their thoughts and feelings. I wanted to share me.

    How does it connect with the principles of IIDEA?
    My article encourages everyone to examine our environments to ensure we are eliminating marginalization and creating spaces and climates that support authenticity and participation. Whenever I share, whether it is a presentation, training, or article, I share a piece of me and my intersectionality is apparent. I cannot hide my race, my culture, my professional and personal roles. I also acknowledge that I have been educated and socialized in a system that continues to marginalize and discriminate against others and must actively check myself so that I do not continue to perpetuate bias and discrimination. I appreciate opportunities like these to share my worldviews, when we begin to understand ourselves, it helps us to better understand others, then we can begin to move towards equity. Equity leads to advancement when we are genuine in our approach and move from functioning as performative allies to becoming proactive co-conspirators. 

    What are the implications of your work for social policy, practice, or research?
    I understand that my work is only touching the surface of the iceberg. However, we must encourage genuine change amongst ourselves and the systems in which we operate. We need to reach below the surface of the water to hightlight the interpersonal, intrapersonal, and systemic issues that continue to keep us bound to the status quo. The more we are educated and engage in critical self-reflection the more we will see genuine change in individuals that will translate into lasting institutional change and accountability. The change we seek must begin with us!

    What is the value of this work? Why is it important?
    Our nation has been in racial reckoning for a few years now. However, the issues we are seeing are not new, these issues have persisted since the incepetion of our country. It is imperative that we move towards change. We cannot continue to function in status quo and hope for better. We must take action! I hope this will be the spark that one needs to shift their mindset and move towards change. Many ask, well what can I do? Start with you, reflect on who you are, your values, beliefs, consider how those thoughts and actions impact others. When you see you, it is easier to see others. 

  • Dr. Gabriel Robles (he/él) is a clinical social worker, assistant professor at the School of Social Work and the Chancellor's Scholar for Inclusive Excellence in Sexual and Gender Minority Health at Rutgers. Dr. Robles conducts research focused on substance use prevention and sexual health among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) with a strong interest in addressing health inequities among Latinx SGM populations. He examines how cultural values, institutional and interpersonal support, and intersecting identities can serve as resiliency factors in mitigating negative health outcomes. Dr. Robles additionally examines the role that family and romantic/sexual partners play in the health and wellbeing of sexual and gender minorities. 

    Tell us about one specific article or dissemination effort that relates to DEI that you’ve worked on recently.
    I have a series of articles published on the experiences of sexual minority men (SMM), including Latino/x SMM. These articles highlight the role that enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) plays on the health and well-being of SMM in the U.S. These articles also highlight the importance of supporting communities impacted by intersectional stigmas such as heterosexism, racism, and, nativism/ xenophobia, among others. 

    Robles, G., Dellucci, T. V., Gupta, S. K., Rosenthal, L., & Starks, T. J. (2022). Identity and relationship-based discrimination, and mental health in a sample of sexual minority male couples. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 26(1), 76-97.

    Robles, G., Hong, C., Yu, M., & Starks, T. J. (2021). Intersecting communities and PrEP uptake among US-based Latinx sexual minority men. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 1-7.

    Robles G, Bosco SC, Cardenas I, Hostetter J, Starks TJ. (2022). Psychosocial and culturally specific factors related to intimate partner violence victimization among a sample of Latino sexual minority cis men in the U.S. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. E-Pub.

    Why did you work on these articles?
    I wrote these manuscripts because of my personal experiences with issues related to intersectional stigma but also my work in clinical social work in which clients would continuously set aside issues related to internalized homophobia and instead focus on the way their family and community members make disrespectful comments towards them for being queer and Latino/x. 

    I additionally conducted these studies because I started to notice that people seem to rely on specific support systems based on the issue at hand. Even among partnered individuals, it appears that community and other social support systems are still vital to the mental health and wellbeing of the partners. 

    How does it connect with the principles of IIDEA?
    In these works, we begin to contextualize the experiences of Latino/x SMM while living in a white Eurocentric setting. Providing this context is important as the field moves towards using interventions that are designed for and endorsed by Latino/x SMM. In my opinion, the burden lies on social work investigators to ensure that the interventions are appropriate. In practice, we often rely on clients to voice their concerns about the intervention, but by this time it’s often too late. We need to engage community partners from the inception of the idea through to dissemination.

    What are the implications of your work for social policy, practice, or research?
    My work is highly relevant to social work practice. Many of the processes that we discuss in the therapy room with clients often stem from structural issues. The day in which psychotherapy is solely based on diagnosing and providing treatment as usual is over. We need to make sure we are using treatment methods that don’t inadvertently perpetuate the status quo.   

    My work is important to social policy given that there are countless anti-LGBTQ+ state bills waiting to be passed. It is important now, more than ever, to ensure that LGBTQ+ people of color are centered in those contexts given that people of color often face the more dire circumstances when policy fails people.

    What is the value of this work? Why is it important?
    This work centers the experiences of Latino/x SMM, and other LGBTQ+ persons as well, as an important aspect of the U.S. experience. The work specifically moves the burden of intersectional stigma away from the socially vulnerable and situates it within a larger socio-cultural structure that continues to deny the existence of these people – my peoples.

  • Karun K. Singh is a professor of teaching at Rutgers School of Social Work. His teaching, research, and scholarly interests focus on multidisciplinary nonprofit and public human services management, collaborative strategic planning, fundraising and marketing, social entrepreneurship, and microaggressions prevention. He is the co-chair of the New Jersey and the New York City Chapters of the Network for Social Work Management (NSWM). He also serves as an editorial advisory board member of Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership, & Governance, currently the only social work journal focused on improving the capacity and performance of human service and health care organizations worldwide through high-level research. Dr. Singh teaches advanced-level courses in the Management and Policy (MAP) specialization such as Management, Practice, and Theory, Program Development and Strategic Planning, and Fundraising and Marketing, as well as Diversity and Oppression, a foundation-level course. He is a Faculty Affiliate, Center for Leadership and Management.  

    Tell us about one specific article or dissemination effort that relates to IIDEA (Inclusion, Intersectionality, Diversity, Equity, and Advancement) that you’ve worked on recently.
    I had an article published recently (Singh, 2022) on quality assurance in a new academic resource, the Oxford Encyclopedia of Macro Social Work (OEMSW). OEMSW is an annotated, peer-reviewed, online research encyclopedia of macro social work. The article is based in part on a conference paper I co-presented with two MAP alumni mentees of mine at the NSWM conference in 2021, Singh, Bader, & De La Cruz, 2021.

    Quality assurance (QA) is a widely accepted management function that is intended to ensure that services provided to consumers meet agreed-upon standards. Standards come from professional organizations, evidence-based practices, and public policies that specify outcomes for consumers. QA systems consist of measurement, comparison of findings to standards, and feedback to practitioners and managers. It is useful to think of assurance not as a guarantee, but as increasing the probability that the social work transactions will achieve intended results with consumers. There is emerging, but limited, research that indicates QA can be an effective strategy for improving outcomes for consumers. However, a caveat is that one of the major challenges limiting QA’s effectiveness is the lack of sufficient data collected on race and ethnicity, resulting in disparities in the delivery of prevention and treatment services and the achievement of optimal health and human service client outcomes. Another significant problem is the need for overcoming barriers due to structural bias in organizations processing information via their QA systems.           

    Why did you conduct this study?
    OEMSW is the first online research encyclopedia focusing exclusively on macro social work theory, research, and practice. I wrote this article because I was invited by the editors of this new compendium, Dr. Terry Mizrahi and Dr. Darlyne Bailey, to submit a research-based entry on QA. They have known me for many years as a leader in the MAP specialization at Rutgers.    

    How does it connect with the principles of IIDEA?
    Management techniques should be held to the same standards as direct social work practices in terms of demonstrating their effectiveness. This is easier said than done with respect to QA systems, given that they are complex. Due to their complexity in terms of both design and implementation, it is often difficult to state with certainty that they are more than moderately effective across all organizational and service settings. However, despite this uncertainty, a considerable number of recent investigations linking multiple evidence-based practices, strategic frameworks, experience-validated tools, and research-informed methodologies have demonstrated the promise of a high level of QA effectiveness in a wide variety of social work and health care contexts (see, for example, Bradshaw et al., 2016; Hogue et al., 2013; Myszewski & Sinha, 2018; Sedlar et al., 2015; Seidl & Newhouse, 2012; Wandersman et al., 2012). By referring readers to these studies, one can see that in my article I go into a more in-depth exploration that describes the benefits of implementing QA programs, such as the assurance that all clients will receive the same quality of evidence-based services, thereby reducing disparities in diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) care provision and increasing outcomes’ effectiveness across different population groups. Also, it highlights opportunities for social work managers to establish frameworks, a form of standardization and best practices to improve the practice of QA in social services.     

    What are the implications of your work for social policy, practice, or research?
    In the last two decades or so, agency executives (as well as researchers and other health and human services system stakeholders) have focused on DEI practice and policy issues, as well as the deployment of modern technological advances in terms of how they impact data-driven decision making and the delivery of services to service recipients (Alberti et al., 2013; Mutha et al., 2012). For example, racial and ethnic disparities have been observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries because of poor historical data collection practices. To improve the accuracy of race and ethnicity data, researchers have deployed new techniques such as algorithm imputation, geocoding, and surname analysis (Filice & Joynt, 2017). These techniques can be utilized in combination with older approaches to reducing health care inequities like the advocacy-oriented report card approach (Smith, 1998). Of practical significance is the large number of toolkits that have been developed recently to assist in tackling organizational structural DEI challenges in order to improve the quality of information processed by QA systems (Tellez, 2021).      

    What is the value of this work? Why is it important?
    One of the significant advantages of developing and implementing a QA system is that it helps an agency to be focused on its service mission and, thereby, to remain consumer-oriented across time. The concept of QA shares basic compatibility with human service and social work values. Increasingly, as part of enhanced strategic management initiatives, human service and health care leaders are routinely deploying QA techniques as part of continuous quality improvement and program monitoring efforts to drive the overall strategic planning (Bryson, 2018) and program design (Kettner et al., 2017) practices of their organizations (Golensky & Hager, 2020).

    Alberti, P.M., Bonham, A.C., & Kirch, D.G. (2013). Making equity a value in value-based health care. Academic Medicine, 88(11), 1619-1623.

    Bradshaw, K.M., Donohue, B., Fayeghi, J., Lee, T., Wilks, C.R., & Ross, B. (2016). Evaluation of a standardized method of quality assurance in mental health records: A pilot study. Research on Social Work Practice, 26(6), 686-692.

    Bryson, J.M. (2018). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement (5th ed.). Jossey-Bass.

    Filice, C.E., & Joynt, K.E. (2017). Examining race and ethnicity information in Medicare administrative data. Medical Care, 55(12), e170-e176.

    Golensky, M., & Hager, M. (2020). Strategic leadership and management in nonprofit organizations: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

    Hogue, A., Ozechowski, T.J., Robbins, M.S., & Waldron, H.B. (2013). Making fidelity an intramural game: Localizing quality assurance procedures to promote sustainability of evidence-based practices in usual care. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(1), 60-77.

    Kettner, P.M., Moroney, R., & Martin, L.L. (2017). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach (5th ed.). Sage Publications.

    Mutha, S., Marks, A., Bau, I., & Regenstein, M. (2012). Bringing equity into quality improvement: An overview of the field and opportunities ahead. Center for the Health Professions: University of San Francisco.

    Myszewski, J.M., & Sinha, M.N. (2018). A model for measuring effectiveness of quality management practices in health care. Leadership in Health Services, 31(3), 310-325.

    Sedlar, G., Bruns, E.J., Walker, S.C., Kerns, S., & Negrete, A. (2015). Developing a quality assurance system for multiple evidence based practices in a statewide service improvement initiative. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 44(1), 29-41.

    Seidl, K.L., & Newhouse, R.P. (2012). The intersection of evidence-based practice with 5 quality improvement methodologies. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 42(6), 299-304.

    Singh, K.K. (2022). Quality assurance. In T. Mizrahi and D. Bailey (Eds.). Oxford Encyclopedia of Macro Social Work. Oxford University Press. OEMSW is an annotated, peer-reviewed, online research encyclopedia of macro social work.

    Singh, K.K, Bader, R., & De La Cruz, B.M. (2021). Quality assurance frameworks and measurement tools for social work managers. Paper presented at the Network for Social Work Management Conference (

    Smith, D.B. (1998). Addressing racial inequities in health care: Civil rights monitoring and report cards. Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 23(1), 75-105.  

    Tellez, T. (2021). Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) organizational assessment tools: A resource guide. Institute for Racial and Economic Equity: Brandeis University.

    Wandersman, A., Chien, V.H., & Katz, J. (2012). Toward an evidence-based system for innovation support for implementing innovations with quality: Tools, training, technical assistance, and quality assurance/quality improvement. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3-4), 445-459.